Saturday, May 23, 2020

Maya Angelou Response Essay - 717 Words

A race war between whites and blacks has blighted American history since colonial times. In her essay â€Å"Graduation,† Maya Angelou recollects the experience of her eighth grade graduation in the 1930s to examine the personal growth of humans caught in the adversity of racial discrimination. Through narrative structure, selection of detail, and use of imagery, Angelou encourages young blacks to follow their ambitions with pride, despite what the â€Å"white man† thinks of them. Through her narrative structure, Angelou aspires for young black students to maintain â€Å"Negro† pride and strong ambition. Her essay is built on a foundation of intertwined objective and subjective narration which follows chronological order. It commences with Angelou†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"Those who were years removed from their own day of glorious release were anxious to help with preparations.† Children are described as trembling â€Å"with visible anticipation † and the teachers have become â€Å"respectful of the now quiet and aging seniors.† This illustrates the immense pride and unity that is induced by the graduation ceremony. Angelou also provides an elegant self-analysis of her own rank and importance within Stamps. In terms of intellectual ability, it is clear that Angelou is better achieved than the majority, for she stands at nearly the top of her class. In addition, Angelou holds great aspirations for her future; she does not let society’s low expectations keep her from excelling. With imagery, Angelou emphasizes the appearance of the graduates and their reaction to Donleavy’s racism. She transmits this using a variety of techniques; the most common trope being similes. However, Angelou also utilizes other devices such as metaphors and personification. Before the graduation ceremony, Angelou uses visual imagery to vividly accentuate the appearance of her and the other graduates. They are â€Å"the rea l nobility;† Angelou is â€Å"a walking model of all the various styles of fine hand sewing† and â€Å"looks like a sunbeam.† They are all dignifiedly dressed. During the ceremony, Angelou uses imagery to intensify the reaction toShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Interpretation of None the Other, Maya Angelou1508 Words   |  7 Pagesinterpretation of a poem alter the true value of the poem itself? The answer to this question may vary, depending on one’s interpretation. Then again, that response can be used to answer every question this world holds. Dr. Maya Angelou is one of the most renowned and influential voices of our time. Hailed as a global renaissance woman, Dr. Angelou is a celebrated poet, memoirist, novelist, educator, producer, actress, historian, filmmaker, and civil rights activist. As a strong African-American womanRead MoreI Know Why The Caged Bird Sings1159 Words   |  5 PagesI Know Why The Caged Bird Sings, by Maya Angelou is an autobiogra phical coming of age story set in the midst of the racially charged era of the Jim Crow Laws. Angelou’s novel explores the enormously influential first seventeen years of her life, as she struggles to overcome the seemingly insurmountable personal and societal adversities such as rape, race, instability, and insecurity. Angelou’s powerful depictions of the events of her early life immediately immerses her readers in the fact that lifeRead MoreI Know Why The Caged Bird Sings1004 Words   |  5 PagesSings is a book that speaks solely on the upbringing of Maya Angelou, and on the accomplishments, yet struggles that make Maya the woman she is. It begins in California in the 1930’s. Maya and her brother Bailey lived with her parents at a very young age, but after their divorced they were shipped to Arkansas to live their grandmother. They called their grandmother Momma, because she was a parental figure to both of them. In her young years Maya struggled with the ab sence of her parents and that neglectRead More Maya Angelou Essay1200 Words   |  5 Pages Maya Angelou is a phenomenal woman. She was born into a devastating decade, that suffered numerous tragedies. Not only had society shaped her as a woman, she has also shaped our society and influenced many lives. She is still living today, yet I believe her legend will never die. Furthermore I will share with you what motivated her and some of her gratifying experiences. How she was effected by society, and what she did about it. Also how the time period she was born into made her the extraordinaryRead MoreSimilarities Between Alice Walker And Maya Angelou1074 Words   |  5 PagesAlice Walker and Maya Angelou are two contemporary African-American writers. Although almost a generation apart in age, both women display a remarkable similarity in their lives. Each has written about her experiences growing up in the rural South, Ms. Walker through her essays and Ms. Angelou in her autobiographies. Though they share similar backgrounds, each has a unique style that gives the readers, the gift of their exquisite humanity, with all of its frailties and strengths, joys and sorrowsRead MoreI Know Why The Caged Bird Sings1482 Words   |  6 Pages Maya Angelou tells of her life experiences and struggles in her book â€Å"I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings† that gives us insight about Maya’s life as a young black girl growing up in a time of racism. The novel discusses various forms of oppression that she had to face as well cope with them. Robert A. Gross wrote an analysis for Newsweek about the book and claimed that Angelou’s book is not only an interesting story of her own experience, but also a portrayal of a Southern black communityRead MoreOpression in Maya Angelou’s I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings and James McBride’s Color of Water1965 Words   |  8 Pagespeople respond to oppression; they are acceptance of their own doom, non-violent actions and a violent response. Overall, he emphasizes community involvement, worki ng together and dropping racial barriers as the solution to oppression. In Maya Angelou’s I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings and James McBride’s Color of Water, Maya Angelou and Ruth McBride Jordan face similar challenges; Maya Angelou faces segregation and internal oppression and Ruth McBride faces segregation, gender and religious oppressionRead More Maya Angelou Essay1926 Words   |  8 Pagesthe time she was born, Maya Angelou was subjected to racism, rape, grief and dehumanization. She beared enough emotional stress in a time frame that most people dont experience in a lifetime. Yet she prevailed. She forced herself to become stronger. And in doing so, she produced writings, which in turn, helped others to become strong. Her experiences and the lessons learned gave her confidence to be a teacher, a preacher, and an inspiration to millions. Maya Angelou was courageous. BasedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Phenomenal Woman By Maya Angelou2030 Words   |  9 PagesSummary of Phenomenal Woman by Maya Angelou Stanza 1: â€Å"Phenomenal Woman† begins with a attack on stereotypes. She proudly declares that she neither has a hourglass figure, nor a cute face. Her success without essential feminine traits surprises pretty women and they often want to know the secret of her success. She describes her secret saying that it comes from her confidence, the way she stretches her arms, the way she walks, the rhythm of her hips and also the way she smiles. Her entire body isRead More Comparing In Search of Our Mothers Gardens and I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings1145 Words   |  5 PagesIn Search of Our Mothers Gardens and I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings      Ã‚  Ã‚   Alice Walker and Maya Angelou are two contemporary African-American writers.   Although almost a generation apart in age, both women display a remarkable similarity in their lives.   Each has written about her experiences growing up in the rural South, Ms. Walker through her essays and Ms. Angelou in her autobiographies.   Though they share similar backgrounds, each has a unique style which gives to us, the readers

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Antonio In The Bless Me Ultima - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 800 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/10/30 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Bless Me Ultima Essay Did you like this example? Life has many twists and turns and some are meant to be a learning experience and help shift our perspective on daily life. When one allows events to shape their life it can be beneficial or detrimental. Betrayal, respect, negligence, and defiance can all have a significant role on the development of ones life, whether someone chooses to believe or be in disbelief truth will always prosper. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Antonio In The Bless Me Ultima" essay for you Create order Narciso, Ultima, and Florence all perish, facing defeat. Antonio young and naive to the world deals with so much misfortune. Death has significance to Antonio and to the afterlife that awaits and the loss of a soul as Narcisos death was not in vain. Narciso chooses to be valiant, courageously facing Tenorio all at once. His actions show him to be an honest man running to protect Ultima from Tenorio when she was defenseless. When confronting Antonios older brother he shows concern for Ultimas safety,and gets declined due to his drunk nature leading to his demise. After Antonio notices that his brother had betrayed Narcisos word, he goes to seek help holding his head down. Now with facing and seeing death through his own eyes he begins to believe there is no good in this world. All the above shows that death of a close friend has affected Antonios value of life. Someones company can come in a great amount of ways, friends, enemies, alies, animals and all can influence oneself in a g ood and bad way, they can do as much as pursue one to believe in themselves. Antonio had a couple of friends when he went to communion, all but one of his many friends seemed abnormal to him, Florence was a boy who usually stayed quiet and was hardly noticed. Florence did not believe in religion therefore did not believe someone would save his soul after he died, not believing in a God while Antonio had been raised in a devout catholic home worried and lead to the distaste in his friends behavior. Florence did believe in something and that was himself ,despite his non belief in practicing religion. When Antonio saw Florence define all others opinions on him, he sought for to acquire that quality for himself. After going one day with friends and witnessing his friend drown and come afloat a river changed Antonio and made him realize that his friend had died without confession and that he would burn in hell. As well made him question himself, why if there is an all knowing god there was still so much evil in the world. He now recognized that one does not need to believe in anything to believe in oneself. Though this event changed Antonio in a detrimental manner he still believes that life is not always good but there is a balance in the uni verse. Death is inevitable in life and at times leaves messages for others to follow, life flourishes across the world and as one grows one learns from it. The elderly live among us and are wise with knowledge and some seek for that knowledge that is shared from old to young. Ultima gives young Antonio a necklace filled with protective herbs as he continues to grow more and more attached to her she begins to look after him more then his mother. Through the time he first welcomed her to his home she took to immediately go and help his uncle Lucas who had been cursed by the trementina sisters saving his life and showed that she has a good heart. The compassion shared between Ultima and Antonio is strong as she teaches him after Tenorios daughter dies that good outweighs evil. Through all the time Ultima spent with Antonio she watched over him through the owl and her spirit embedded inside of it. When Ultimas spirit is killed she begins to slowly die and tells Antonio that she has lived her life and that he needs to destroy all her belongings and does so obediently as he respects her in her final minutes, In the end he never quite understood why everything had to happen the way it did and affected him in a beneficial way. The majority of things that happen to Antonio are during the summer and have seemed to mature him and shape his view on the world. He began to learn that change is sad and inevitable to escape, that it must happen to progress. Antonios father cannot seem to cope with the changes in his own life and still neglects the fact that it is his actions to pursue freedom and inspired his children to make a life of their own and not pursue his dream. Through evil shines Light, and hardships, tribulations, and death are obstacles one mus t overcome in life to do good.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Discourse of Three Drunkards Free Essays

Emma Luster HIS 282 November 6, 2011 A Discourse by Three Drunkards on Government Nakae Chomin wrote A Discourse by Three Drunkards on Government in 1887. It is a work of debate literature that presents us with multi-dimensional characters with very specific and indefinable beliefs about how Japan should be run. Nakae Chomin studied in France for some time and this certainly must have influenced his thoughts and writings. We will write a custom essay sample on A Discourse of Three Drunkards or any similar topic only for you Order Now In our textbook, Modern East Asia, we learned about many different movements and developments that were going on at the time that this book was written. In terms of political developments, there were a lot of changes going on in Japan. Japanese officials sent forces into Taiwan, which eventually lead to the Chinese suffering a defeat and the samurai still feeling betrayed by the Meiji leaders, which in turn lead to an uprising in Hizen and other areas of Japan. This was the start of the end for the Samurai (Schirokauer, 163). However, despite this rebellion, other leaders praised those in charge of the uprising for their spirit and enthusiasm. There was a great amount of discontent and opposition to the Meiji government at this time and antigovernment groups began to pop up everywhere. It is also notable that political parties began to emerge at this time. Not only were there political developments, but there were also many changes in terms of intellectual progress. Many people in Japan were greatly influenced by Western ideals, specifically in the areas of science and technology (Schirokauer, 168). The Europeans Enlightenment also influenced Japanese intellectuals. To me, it seems as though the intellectual movements were for the most part stimulated by ideas that did not come directly from Japan. With all of these changes, the foreign relations that Japan had with other countries began to change. Relations with Western and European countries grew exponentially for the better. However, relations with other Asian nations were not quit as successful; especially after the rebellions and revolutions. As we learn from the debate, China and Russia are the two countries that stick out as countries that could cause problems for Japan. I think that the author wrote this book at the time that he did because he knew that Japan was stuck and people needed help as to what should happen next. By writing this type of book it gives readers multiple opinions without forcing them to choose one like most authors. He thought that the crisis was that conflicting opinions were not being compromised and no one really wanted to be the one to lead Japan successfully into the future for fear of failure. His concern was the Japan would fall apart and that there would be nothing anyone can do. One of the three characters in the book, Champion, had a very unique view of how Japan should be that was extremely different from that of the Gentleman. The Champion thought that Japan should step it up and become more forceful in its handling of foreign disputes. He thought that if Japan was going to be attacked by another nation, Japan should not be passive and should in fact answer with strength and force. He brings up a good point when he says that Japan could not respond to foreign attacks by trying to verbalize and reason through the problem. Champion is a skeptic when it comes to relations with other nations and thinks that other countries are solely looking out for their own best interests which to me seems to make sense, and that is why Champion believes that Japan needs to take a stand and project its own desires and interests. Another point that I find to be particularly powerful is that Champion tells the Gentleman that just because Japan is adopting Westerns values, it does not mean that these other nations such as France or the United States will aid Japan in a time of need. According to the Champion, war is inevitable and it should not be feared because it will leave Japanese citizens with a sense of pride and pleasure that they have accomplished something that is of great importance. In short, Champion thinks that weakness and passiveness is the problem and that Japan needs to not rely on other countries as much, and should take caution to create a system where Japan can stand on its own. To me, I think that Champion does seem to be realistic in his arguments because he knows that discussion and reasoning will not be effective once a violent attack has already been launched. However, I think that the degree to which militaristic views were pushed is slightly extreme and that Champion should realize that there is some validity to not being so outwardly aggressive. Next, we have the Gentleman, whose argument is the opposite of Champion’s. The Gentleman believes that as the Western world develops, Japan will quickly be left behind in the dark. To prevent this, he argues, Japan should try to keep up with the times and stay as modernized and Westernized as possible to reduce the risk of being left behind. This means that Japan should try to adopt a political system such as democracy, which in turn, attempts to promote pacifism over violence at all costs. Namely, that conflict with the larger and stronger European nations is avoided. These powers are of concern to the Gentleman and he stresses the point that trying to stand against these powers on war would be a foolish decision because if Japan is victimized, they will not be in the wrong for also engaging in violence. In the government, the Gentleman believes that the power should lie in the hands of the people, eliminating the tension that citizens had with the government in previous years. If the citizens felt like they are more involved, perhaps they would have more of a sense of national pride in their homeland. The Gentleman specifically mentions China and Russia as rivals that should be watched closely. In my opinion, I feel as though the Gentleman is too optimistic in his thinking that pacifism is a realistic approach to solving world problems, especially after the development of stronger and more powerful weapons. Despite the fact that he promotes pacifism, I also feel as though the Gentleman’s promotion of his tactics, as well as his hope and desire for an instant change is far too aggressive for something that would be so radically different for the Japanese. His ideas are good in theory, and if they would really work I think it would be the best situation. Lastly, we encounter the mediator of the two other men, Master Nankai. Master Nankai has a clear passion for talking about politics and believes that it is of high importance. Master Nankai takes bits and pieces from both arguments and it seems as though he promotes the best of both worlds. He is clearly a supporter of democracy, but he also realizes that it has its drawbacks. He believes that Japanese officials should not seek out violence but if needed, they should be able to protect their country to the best of their abilities. It is also said that European nations such as, France, Germany, and Russia set the standard for what Japan should strive for. However, as much as it seems as though Master Nankai supported these ideas, he also makes strong statements that he cannot accept either set of beliefs as they stand. Nankai wants the men to try and revise their ideas, and give them time to be tested in the real world before one can be accepted as the whole truth. To him, Master Nankai thinks that a constitutionalism system should be put in place where the emperor still has power but the peace and happiness of the Japanese citizens is still promoted. Now we come to the hard part, deciding where my beliefs lay and which of any of these main characters do I support? I would have to say that I cannot say that I could pick one of the main characters arguments. Both are far too idealistic and would not work in the real world. To me, the perfect situation would be a combination of both Champion and Gentleman’s beliefs. If the Japanese could learn from other countries, and strive for more independence in the world, that can only be beneficial. However, it is important that the Japanese culture is maintained and that precautions are taken so that it can protect itself if need be. In conclusion, we can learn a lot about Meiji Japan from this book that at first did not seem to be strictly informational. The book as a whole focuses on the international relations of Japan with other world powers as well as the future of Meiji Japan. I think it is clear that Japan is at a major crossroad right now where things could take a drastic turn for the worse if the right decision is not made. How to cite A Discourse of Three Drunkards, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Project Management Methodologies of Latino Engineering - Samples

Question: Discuss about the Project Management Methodologies of Latino Engineering. Answer: Latino Engineering is medium size company; they are around 300 employees working in the company. The enterprise is known to provide best quality design, development for the equipment they manufacture. Dominic Latino, the founder of the company is known to provide best quality product to the clients and thus the clients have high respect and regard for him. At the age of 65 years, he retires and hands the company to an investor group. Unfortunately, the investor group face various kinds of issues within a year of hand over. That is why they have planned to adopt a project methodology (Verzuh 2015). The PRINCE2 project methodology is going to solve their issues and the techniques via which Latino Engineering can enhance their business activities will be detailed in the essay (Refer to Appendix A). Latino Engineering generally declines due to failure of the management body. They do not have the correct methodology with them. Dominic Latino was not to cater the quality engineering equipment; however, the new management body due to lack of expertise, lack of experience are struggling. The adoption of PRINCE2 project phases can prove fruitful for them. First of all, they must have a proper design plan for the engineering equipment. Latino should consider the workforce as well (Sommer, Dukovska-Popovska and Steger-Jensen 2014). They must cater the responsibility to the entire team of Latino Engineering according to their expertise. The first phase of PRINCE2 signifies the initiation of the project and the initiation of the project involves the design plan of the project and the responsibility divided among the employees according to the skill. The second phase is the direction of the project. The manager and his subordinates must communicate with each other and constantly keep in t ouch with each other. The tasks must be divided into subtasks and then each part must be completed within stipulated deadline, if any mishaps occur then the manager and his subordinates must come to the rescue and solve the issues as soon as possible (Nicholas and Steyn 2017). Thus the first complaint or the first risk that is the manufacturing of defect equipment can be solved. The next complaint or the next issue that arises is poor follow up with the clients. The manager always keeps in touch with the clients. The partial submission should be delivered and it is the responsibility of the manager to take the feedback from the clients and if possible must update the equipment. Also in case of a manufacturing defect in the product they delivered, the manager should be proactive and should repair the product according to the demands of the clients (Martinelli and Milosevic 2016). Another scenario may occur, the client is not happy with the design and type in certain areas of the product, the manager should revert back within twenty-four hours and should solve the problems if possible. The managers should appoint a customer service team who will keep in touch with the clients all throughout day and night. This can ease the management system. All these alterations and modification must be recorded in the form of soft copy and in the form of hard copy as well (K rysi?ski and Miller 2016). The planning and monitoring phase of PRINCE2 illustrates the clients feedback and the project performance proceedings. The planning phase involves working in accordance to the deliverables sent to the clients whereas the monitoring phase involves the feedback from the clients and work accordingly. The third issue is the long turnaround time for issue resolution. The manager should revert back within twenty-four hours with full responsibility. The manager along with his subordinates must process the project and make the rework as per clients demands and should submit it as fast as possible (Vardy 2015). All these rework must be documented in digital format in the form of a soft copy or in the form of hard copy. Thus the issue resolution of the clients can be solved. PRINCE2 initiating phase, planning phase and the monitoring phase can solve the third issue. The initiating phase involves the starting of the project according to the deliverables and the contracts made with the clients (Svejvig and Andersen 2015). The planning involves the fresh working or reworking of the existing equipment as per the deliverables sent to the clients and the clients wishes and demands. The fourth issue is the non-responsive customer service team. The customer service must adopt the IT services and if possible should adopt the cloud technology, the IT services can help them to connect with the clients 24x7 all day and night. The customer service must be educated with the proper equipment knowledge so that they can serve the customers better. The managers, on the other hand, should keep contact with the customer service team; any critical query must be solved by the management team (Srivannaboon and Munkongsujarit 2016). The fifth issue can be solved by appointing the courier service. The courier service can be a third party or it can be Latino Engineerings owned courier team who will take the responsibility to ship the right equipment to the right clients. The courier service should make a list and then deliver all the items according to the list and they must have acted responsibly and should deliver within time. The five major issues that have been addressed withi n last 12 months have been addressed in this essay and the probable solutions to defend those issues will be discussed in details. Latino Engineering has suffered from the defective engineering equipment development. They do not have the right strategy; they do not have the right plan to satisfy the demands and the requirements of the clients of the Latino Engineering. That is why they failed to deliver the best product to the clients (Karaman and Kurt 2015). PRINCE 2 can help them to cater the best plan to initiate and direct the project forward. The pricing for the project must be considered and Latino Engineering must discuss and make deals with the clients. The project or the machinery project's proposals must be well understood, after that analysing the proposals Latino Engineering must send deliverables if the clients are satisfied with the deliverables the Latino employees must initiate the work. Again, they suffer from follow up with clients (Coppola, D'Ambrogio and Gianni 2016). According to PRINCE2, this problem can be mitigated as well. The whole project must be divided into subparts, then each subpart must be assessed and tested and should be cross-checked by the clients of Latino. In this way, Latino's clients can be assured that the project is proceeding well and the project is completely fine with no issues. On the other side, Latino Engineering can be assured they are successful with the project and this can give them the maximum productivity (Seymour and Hussein 2014). Another issue is the deadline issue, the project is not completed within the stipulated deadline, so the deadline should be set at the beginning, and the subparts must be completed properly within the stipulated time. After partial submission, if the customer is not satisfied with the product will definitely complain, previously there was no management body to listen to them and respond to them from time to time, this can be solved by appointing a customer service team within the Latino Engineering company (Alvarez-Dionisi, Turner and Mittra 2016). The customer service team must record the feedback and should forward it to the higher officials. The higher officials must consider the issues and should decide what to do with the issues. They must command the subordinates to take actions if any negative feedback comes. The subordinates then have to revert back to the higher officials and to the clients within twenty-four hours and should rework as soon as possible. The clients can be as sured that their response is heard upon and the priority is being given to their demands and choices (Joslin and Mller 2015). The clients can also be assured that they will get the machinery product within the timeline. Thus the reputation of the company can get increased due to the effort of Latino Engineering. The clients even have complained that they receive the faulty items and the items are not up to the mark. The main reason behind is the lack of communication. The partial submission should be made and the clients' reviews must be taken into consideration after the submission of the partial project. The clients' feedback must be taken from time to time after the partial submission of the project. The customer, if satisfied with the product, Latino Engineering must continue with the work (Turner and Hartley 2016). The customers if not satisfied, Latino Engineering must rework. Therefore, the customers will have to send acknowledgement whether the responses are positive or negative. The positive response will let the managers know that everything is fine and up to the mark, the negative response will let the employees carry on their rework. The employees must have the knowledge on how to conduct the rework and the managers should help them in need. The rework must be done according to t he parameters set by the clients (Cicmil and Gaggiotti 2017). Then after completing the rework, the rework must be sent to the clients for a recheck, if that is ok, the employees must proceed with the remaining task. The other complaint that comes from the clients' end is that wrong item has been shipped to the clients. Latino Engineering should take help from the third party courier service, should appoint the courier service who will ship the items to the right clients at the right time. They can choose another option; they can set a courier service for themselves (Reynolds 2016). The courier service should provide with the correct product along with the correct address. This can check the mishaps regarding shipment of wrong engineering equipment. PRINCE2 project methodology along with its seven phases has the capability to provide continuous improvement to Latino Engineering and this methodology can guarantee that it can check the problems which has incurred within the enterprise (Refer to Appendix B). Latino Engineering must adopt any project methodology for the betterment of the company, the PRINCE2 methodology can prove to be fruitful to the company as PRINCE2 is widely accepted project methodology all over the world. PRINCE2 consists of the following phases via which the Latino Engineerings business activities can be greatly embellished and all their risks can be minimised (Dyb, Dingsyr and Moe 2014). The phases the project methodology contains are starting up a particular project, and then directing the project in a proper way, then the initiation of the project. Later on the planning, the controlling, the monitoring and the closing associated the project must be conducted to get the desired outcome and the better outcom e. The starting up the project signifies that the project must be initiated and business processes must be processed effectively (Basu 2014). In case of Latino engineering, the engineering equipment must be designed according to the demands of the oil and gas industry and according to the wish and demands of the construction industry. Next, the second phase includes proper direction of the project, here in this phase the deadline is set to complete manufacturing of the various parts associated with the project or the machinery part (Hughes et al. 2016). After manufacturing of each part, that part must be tested and the subordinates must convey the message to their managers stating that the part is completely fine (Arnaut, Ferrari and e Souza 2016). The manufacturing of the parts must be completed within the given stipulated deadline. The project must be completed with full efficiency and must not delay. The initiating of the project involves the procedures via which the manufacturing of the machinery parts must be continued. A project Initiating Document (PID) must dictate the contract and terms of reference for the project entirely (Gonzlez-Marcos et al. 2016). The next phase includes the planning, in this planning phase every machinery part must be produced, then they must be tested properly, if it passes the test then the manager should be acknowledged that the machinery part is fine and the project can further proceed. After that comes the controlling phase, the detailed tracking of the documents is done in this phase, the everyday reports must be prepared by Latino Engineering to facilitate the engineering process as well (Eskerod and Huemann 2013). After finishing up a part of a machinery part, the report on the part must be prepared and should be sent to the higher officials, this is a sign of proof the project is going with success. In this way too it can be assured that the project is totally under control and is up to the mark as per the quality is concerned (Francis 2015). This is basically an iterative process. The monitoring phase involves the monitoring, the partial project must be submitted to the clients and they should check if everything is all right or not. The feedback from the clients is absolutely necessary. The positive feedback determines that the work is fine and Latino Engineering can carry on their work further and can complete the work. The negative feedback determines the failure of the project and rework must be done to solve the issues brought by the clients. That means the project will have to be completed and done as per the requirements prescribed by the clients (Brones et al. 2014). The feedback must be acknowledged by the higher officials and the management as this can provide trust to the managers that the project is executing well. The negative feedback signifies that the managers must take charge and manage the same. The authorisation from the Project Board is necessary and they will have to judge and take the decision the proceedings should be made or not. Lastly, the closing phase signifies that the project has been delivered to the clients and the clients will decide that everything is done in accordance with their wish or demands. Their positive feedback and the signoff signifies that the project has been done in time, the project or the machinery part is fine and an acknowledgement must be taken from the clients that they have received the product and they are satisfied with it (Brones et al. 2014). Thus the whole procedure signifies that the project has been executed well according to the clients demands and the clients are happy and satisfied with the product. Thus PRINCE2 must be adopted by Latino Engineering as this can assist them to run the business operations effectively. It can be concluded from the above discourse that the PRINCE2 can bring in significant changes to Latino Engineering. The five major issues that the company has faced have been discussed in the essay. The issues that have been highlighted are the manufacturing of defective engineering parts, poor design and development of the machinery equipment that can prove fatal to the oil and gas industry and the utility industry. Latino Engineering's lack of communication and follow-up with the clients is also one of the major issues that have been raised and the clients are not happy with their service at all. The customer service team and the courier team have also failed to deliver their best. PRINCE2 has widely used project methodology that has the capability to mitigate all the issues raised. By following proper methodology the employees can deliver the top quality products again, the customer service team can serve the clients well. The productivity will be regained as was one year before . References Alvarez-Dionisi, L.E., Turner, R. and Mittra, M., 2016. Globalproject management trends.International Journal of Information TechnologyProject Management (IJITPM),7(3), pp.54-73. Arnaut, B.M., Ferrari, D.B. and e Souza, M.L.D.O., 2016, October. A requirements engineering and management process in concept phase of complex systems. InSystems Engineering (ISSE), 2016 IEEE International Symposium on(pp. 1-6). IEEE. Basu, R., 2014. Managing quality in projects: An empirical study.International journal of project management,32(1), pp.178-187. Brones, F., de Carvalho, M.M. and de Senzi Zancul, E., 2014. Ecodesign in project management: a missing link for the integration of sustainability in product development?.Journal of Cleaner Production,80, pp.106-118. Cicmil, S. and Gaggiotti, H., 2017. Responsible forms of project management education: Theoretical plurality and reflective pedagogies.International Journal of Project Management. Coppola, D., D'Ambrogio, A. and Gianni, D., 2016. Bringing Model-based Systems Engineering Capabilities to Project Management: an Application to PRINCE2. InCIISE(pp. 6-15). Dyb, T., Dingsyr, T. and Moe, N.B., 2014. Agile project management. InSoftware project management in a changing world(pp. 277-300). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Eskerod, P. and Huemann, M., 2013. Sustainable development and project stakeholder management: what standards say.International Journal of Managing Projects in Business,6(1), pp.36-50. Francis, L., 2015.The Influence of Project Management Office on Information Technology Project Success Case of National Microfinance Bank Plc(Doctoral dissertation, The Open University Of Tanzania). Gonzlez-Marcos, A., Alba-Elas, F., Navaridas-Nalda, F. and Ordieres-Mer, J., 2016. Student evaluation of a virtual experience for project management learning: An empirical study for learning improvement.Computers Education,102, pp.172-187. Hughes, D.L., Dwivedi, Y.K., Simintiras, A.C. and Rana, N.P., 2016. Project Management Processes and Practice. InSuccess and Failure of IS/IT Projects(pp. 45-55). Springer International Publishing. Joslin, R. and Mller, R., 2015. Relationships between a project management methodology and project success in different project governance contexts.International Journal of Project Management,33(6), pp.1377-1392. Karaman, E. and Kurt, M., 2015. Comparison of project management methodologies: prince 2 versus PMBOK for it projects.Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research,4(5), pp.657-664. Krysi?ski, M. and Miller, P., 2016. The Role of Conflict in Project Management in the PRINCE2 Methodology.Ekonomika i Organizacja Przedsi?biorstwa, (6), pp.3-12. Martinelli, R.J. and Milosevic, D.Z., 2016.Project management toolbox: tools and techniques for the practicing project manager. John Wiley Sons. Nicholas, J.M. and Steyn, H., 2017.Project management for engineering, business and technology. Taylor Francis. Reynolds, D., 2016. Are Project Managers Getting Better?.ITNOW,58(4), pp.10-11. Seymour, T. and Hussein, S., 2014. The history of project management.International Journal of Management Information Systems (Online),18(4), p.233. Sommer, A.F., Dukovska-Popovska, I. and Steger-Jensen, K., 2014. Barriers towards integrated product developmentChallenges from a holistic project management perspective.International Journal of Project Management,32(6), pp.970-982. Srivannaboon, S. and Munkongsujarit, S., 2016, September. Project management and project portfolio management in open innovation: Literature review. InManagement of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), 2016 Portland International Conference on(pp. 2002-2007). IEEE. Svejvig, P. and Andersen, P., 2015. Rethinking project management: A structured literature review with a critical look at the brave new world.International Journal of Project Management,33(2), pp.278-290. Turner, N. and Hartley, P., 2016. Managing and leading projects and project teams.Advancing Practice in Academic Development, p.225. Vardy, A., 2015. Prince2 Project Management For Beginners: The Ultimate Beginners Crash Course To Learn Prince2 Project Management Quickly And Easily. Verzuh, E., 2015.The fast forward MBA in project management. John Wiley Sons.

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Globalization in the Music industry free essay sample

The music industry has been around for over two centuries (PBS). Its volatility can be measured by its ability to shift and change according to its time period, the technologies that arise through the ages and the publics shift in musical taste. The music industry is comprised of many different components, organizations and individuals that operate within it. Some of these components include the artists who compose the music themselves, the producers that engineer the sounds created by he artists, the companies that handle distribution and promotion of the recorded music, the broadcasters of the music such as radio stations, and professionals who assist the artists to further and better their livelihoods, such as lawyers and managers. All of these components work in cohesion to compose what is the larger Industry of music. In order to fully understand how the music industry has survived and changed In the face of obstacles. We will write a custom essay sample on Globalization in the Music industry or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page En must look at Its short history. The music industry only really started to emerge in the 19th century when sheet music began to e printed and distributed. People did not listen to recorded music until 1877 when music and play the music for themselves. Over the next century technologies were invented that streamlined the recording and listening of music such as creation of records, Jukeboxes and the household radio. Mass production techniques were invented at the turn of the century that allowed music listening to become a regular past time, which propelled the profits of the music industry.Household music listening soon became adopted worldwide and thus shaped the industry that we now today. Globalization has both benefited and plagued the modern music industry. It has allowed for the worldwide spread of music globally through technological breakthroughs such as radio and more modern technologies such as digital distribution. Contrary to this, these modern technologies have also led to some of the greatest downfalls of the music industry, almost crippling it permanently. Recording labels have been forced to completely remodel theyre respective business models in order to adapt to the advent of the digital music era.The sector has infinite from globalization in more than one way. For instance, these days, it is so easy to find share and listen to music, anyone with a computer can have access to listen and buy music. Also because of the rise of the Internet, artists arent confined to national boundaries. Music these days transcends borders (Bloomberg). In the case of Justine Bibber, a Canadian whose music is recognized and accepted widely by the youth of the world, has fans spreading continents all because listening to his music Just requires looking up a song name on Youth.The rise of digital genealogy and the Internet allows for the industry to bring together the world by finding commonalities in musical taste with mass positive reception for an artist and the music he or she creates. No matter if a person is from Egypt or Thailand, that person can access and enjoy the music of any artist he or she desires. Although the music industry has benefited from globalization, most of its pitfalls have arisen from the same source that is globalization. The rise of digital technology and the Internet has bankrupt many of the music industries biggest names.A prime example of this is rout ordered liquidation of Richard Abrasions 26 Virgin Megastars closings in France due to the rise of online music retailing such as Apples tunes music store, which led to Virgin Frances bankruptcy in 2013 (BBS). Another fatal blow to the music industries crippled foundation was the rise of online piracy. As easy as it is to go online and buy or stream music, it is Just as easy to steal it. There are thousands of websites dedicated to music piracy.Although music piracy has been on the decline in the past couple years, still about 11 percent of people using the Internet admit to downloading music illegally (Bloomberg). Over the past decade, the use of CDC has been replaced with online streaming and retailing. This has eliminated much of the record companies revenues as they were used to making most of their profit off of distribution and promotion of physical copies of artists albums (Mien). This has caused for a major shift and remodeling of major players in the music industries business models.Companies such Sony, Warner Music Group and Universal Music Group have started to completely rethink the way they conduct business (Forbes). In the past record labels were not only responsible for production, distribution and promotion of an artist and his/her music, but they also acted as a bank (Forbes), funding the artists tours and recording sessions. Recently, these music What this means is that they are less occupied with the unity gritty, and more focused on what they do best which is distribution and promotion. This also allows for more freedom of creativity for the artist as well as fairer split of profits (Forbes).This adaptation of new business models clearly shows the versatility of t he music industry n adapting to new times and technologies. One can only speculate the future of the music industry. As aforementioned, the music industry is in constant flux, changing shape and adapting to new trends and innovations. If the music industry can survive the blows dealt by the rise of the digital era, than in my opinion, it can withstand whatever test time delivers. Hopefully, as the future of music and globalization proceeds, we will see a convergence between the music industry, artists and consumers that will benefit all parties.Globalization has the power to ruin industries r propel them to heights unseen. In the case of the music industry, although it has been affected negatively in the past, recent data shows that for the first time in years, the music industry has seen growth due to globalization and the widespread popularity of the artist Adele (Bloomberg). This proves that something positive can be found in every negative experience, especially in regards to globalization and the music industry. Sources: Line, Change-Ye (2014). The Evolution of Tappets Music Industry: Cluster and Network Dynamics in the Innovation Practices of the Music Industry.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Activity Based Costing

Activity Based Costing Introduction Activity based costing (ABC) is a widely adopted accounting practice where the cost of making various products and services are based on the companies’ activities (Panda1999, p. 5).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Activity Based Costing specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The costs are specifically allocated to products and services according to the level of consumption of each category but comprehensively, it assigns more indirect costs into direct costs (unlike other conventional accounting practices) (Armstrong 2006, p. 363). The major benefit associated with this accounting technique (ABC) is that a company can be able to specifically know which products and services take up most costs and which are overpriced and less profitable so that a required remedy is developed. Activity based costing basically works by allocating the overall resource costs according to the activities commensurate with the m to the final products and services that are produced by a given company (Armstrong 2006, p. 363). In a more general sense, the technique is basically used to understand a company’s profitability in relation to the costs incurred when producing various goods and services. In this regard, it is important to note that activity based costing has been widely adopted by many organization because it aids in decision-making processes that touch on pricing, outsourcing, identification, and the actual benchmarking of the standards of production of goods and services (Panda1999, p. 5). However, in as much as the activity based costing technique has been beneficial to many organizations; many are also finding it very difficult to implement it. This trend has seen a number of organizations in emerging economies face a number of challenges adopting the technique, despite evidence of incredible success of its implementation in other parts of the world existent in many literature excerpts. Significant challenges have been recorded in areas touching on acceptability, augmentation (with other computer systems in the organization), ensuring the system is of value to the company and its environment (among other challenges) (Liu and Pan 2007).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This study will critically analyze the experiences and challenges of such companies in implementing ABC and how many of them have been able to succeed with this process, while others have openly failed. This will be done through an analysis of two companies (XU JI Electrical Company Limited and Global Electronics Inc) operating in emerging markets. XU JI Electrical Company Limited Though activity based costing has been widely adopted in the Western world, there is still increased skepticism among many companies operating in developing economies of its effectiveness. Such is the situa tion observed in China (Liu and Pan 2007). In fact, Hu (2001) explains that the implementation of Activity based costing in China is still at the theoretical level. This situation can be evidenced in the case of XU JI Electrical Company Limited which is based in China. The company is basically an electronics company that manufactures electronic goods used in the development of public infrastructures like rail. Activity based costing technique was introduced in the company in the year 2001 when there was a strong need to devise methods on how to tackle increased competition in the industry and to employ more efficient accounting techniques for better performance. The initial system was particularly based on the labor-hour absorption rate where costs were allocated across production lines. This system was largely inefficient because it inhibited the company from pursuing competitive pricing strategies. Activity based costing was therefore introduced in the early months of the year 200 9 under the First product department where the main objective for implementing the costing technique was to establish accurate product costing information for purposes of cost control (Liu and Pan 2007). In the implementation of the activity based costing technique, the services of an implementation team was sought, where their primary mandate was to train the existing employees on how to use the system and to build an ABC conceptual model. The latter task was effectively carried out, except for the general administrative and finance expenditures which contributed an overwhelming expenditure of approximately 77% of the entire cost budget. Due to the fact that there was an increased organization structure inhibition, the implementation team decided to develop the ABC conceptual model on the number of employees evidenced in each given activity (as a temporary measure) (Liu and Pan 2007).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Activity Based Costing specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From this analysis, we can see that the company’s operations in China’s fast-paced business environment posed a challenge in the overall implementation of the ABC model because it was difficult to maintain it on an up-to-date level. In fact, similar research studies point out that many more companies face the same challenges especially in identifying a good cost driver for the application of ABC because some of these cost drivers become obsolete after a given period of time (Liu and Pan 2007). Liu and Pan (2007) further explain that the same situation has been evidenced in a number of Western economies where many companies have had to abandon their ABC implementation processes because of the volatility of the economy. After basing the model on the number of employees, the Activity based costing model had to be computerized where a specific Chinese software was identified for this purpose. However, during the imp lementation process, the lack of experience in dealing with such software augmentation led the company into significant conceptual errors that almost grounded the activities of Activity Based Costing implementation process. The company therefore had to seek the guidance of the activity based costing implementation team manager to asses the situation and provide possible remedies. The team manager did so, and after determining the company’s rationale, the project went on smoothly. The company was therefore able to produce monthly Activity based costing reports but there was a significant challenge in augmenting the ABC software with other computer softwares that were in existence before it. From this analysis, we can see that there is a strong need for technical expertise in the product implementation stage of ABC implementation to tackle functionality and compatibility issues. This fact is also supported by Baker (1998, p. 257) who affirms that the input of technical expertis e is vital in the overall successful implementation of ABC. The technical expertise evidenced in the above scenario was characteristic of the team manager’s input in salvaging the situation (ABC implementation). As regards functionality and compatibility issues, it should be understood that the incompatibility of the ABC system and other computer systems was likely to pose a problem for other staff members in the organization (like in the warehouse division or the finance department) because there normally are instances of increased workloads where the officers have to double-check data added by the frontline managers into the ABC system.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In making the employees and staff receptive to the new ABC system, XU JI Electrical Company Limited decided to adopt the formal feedback session technique (Liu and Pan 2007). This technique was successfully used to show employees the benefits of the system; a process which ultimately led to a lot of satisfaction among the company staff. However, some sense of resentment was observed from the front-line managers who pointed out the demanding nature of inputting data into the system as their biggest cause of concern regarding the system. Nonetheless, after subsequent meetings, there was a growing level of understanding among the managers. A link between ABC implementation and performance measures was identified to be the biggest cause for concern when analyzed in terms of future implementation considerations of the project which was considered to be a future agenda for discussion. From this analysis, we can see that the inclusion of the bottom-level and top-level employees in the impl ementation process was critical to the acceptance of the costing technique. Though there were significant objections coming from front-line managers, there were subsequent discussions aimed at seeking employee buy-in that brought the managers onboard. This analysis shows that constant communication between all stakeholders in the organization is likely to improve the probability that changes will be accommodated in the organization. Global Electronics Inc Global electronics Inc is a company specialized in making power semiconductors for signal processing and power control applications and many of its products are also used in braking antilock systems, airbag systems, computer keyboards, modems and the likes. During the end of the year 1999, the company had experienced a significant dip in sales that caused a lot of tension within the company (as regards the long-term prospects of the company’s sustainability) (Juras 2003, p. 1). To remedy this situation, the company decided t o employ the activity based costing system to uphold the company’s efficiency. In a general sense, the company experienced significant success in implementing the ABC system because its new manager, Chris Richards, had a good background in ABC. This was the first step that could be learnt from the company’s experience in implementing ABC because the company’s new manager brought a lot of technical expertise that could be used in implementing the ABC model. In a more general sense, this analysis shows that importing beneficial technical expertise is a positive move towards ensuring smooth implementation of ABC. It is also important to note that having someone with a significant experience about the implementation of ABC, spearheading the process, is also a good move for the company. It was also observed that the education about the new model (ABC) and the task of wrapping management’s thoughts around the new model was still attributed to him (Chris Richard s, the new manager). Basically, management’s buy-in could be attributed to his influence. This analysis is important to organizations that experience problems getting management to adopt to new changes in the organization. More essentially, it is important to note that having someone with considerable experience regarding ABC, in the managerial team is a plus towards getting the overall managerial team to accept changes in the organization. Another reason for the smooth implementation of the model was attributed to the company’s operating capacity. The company‘s director of manufacturing (cited in Juras 2003, p. 2) affirmed that: â€Å"The number one thing we had going for us was an urgency factor. I truly believe people would not have given us the time of day with respect to ABC if we were making 10 percent return on sales. Having operating losses of $100 million causes people to listen†. Moreover, in successfully implementing the ABC model, a steering co mmittee which encompassed most members of all the company’s departments was quickly formed. The members came from finance committees, product engineering, operations management, and other functional teams of the organization, but extra assistance was also sought from external organizations to enable the company effectively implement the ABC model (Juras 2003, p. 2). The move to include members from various departments of the organization ensured that the steering committee was holistic, in terms of member contribution because all the departmental members represented most functional areas of the organization. It is also important to note the input of the steering committee in the implementation of the ABC model because it played a vital role in the entire process. The steering committee basically went ahead to define the tasks of each company plant department, assign the resource costs to the specific activities, and determine the activity drivers, among other technical areas of the ABC implementation model (it is important to note that all functional managers of the organization gave support to the steering committee) (Juras 2003, p. 1). From this analysis, we can see that having a steering committee was quite vital to the successful implementation of the ABC model, considering the above tasks are key in the design stage of implementing the ABC model (Salvendy 2001, p. 2319). It is therefore vital for organizations that have a problem going past the design stage of the ABC model to have a steering committee that specializes on moderating the tasks to be covered at this stage. It was also confirmed by Global Electronics’ manager that setting short-term goals during the implementation of the ABC model was essential in ensuring the process implementation process was smooth (Juras 2003, p. 3). The short-term goals set for the implementation of the ABC model was meant to improve the product cost accuracy and optimize the company’s product mix. A long-term objective was also established, and it was meant to transit the company into a long-term activity based costing management criterion. This is also another pointer that can be borrowed by organizations which have a problem implementing the ABC model because quite a number fail to understand the short-term and long-term goals of implementing ABC in the first place. Having clearly set short-term and long-term goals is therefore vital to the overall implementation of the ABC model because it steers the organization into the right direction during implementation. Integrating the new ABC model with other existent systems was also a tricky affair for the company, but it successfully managed to undertake the ABC model in an offline manner where the system was managed separately from the previously existing labor-based standard costing system. In the same manner, the new model was also managed separately from the financial reporting system. However, it was quite tricky for the co mpany to maintain the offline system because there were issues of employee behavior, and other issues arising from previous negative experiences learnt from the PUC process that the company engaged in. Part of this problem was summarized by Juras (2003) that: â€Å"The problem with a non integrated approach, even though it is certainly a lot simpler and less risky, is how do you affect behavior?For example, you cant run the marketing organization based upon achieving some desired gross margin when they are relying upon bogus costs to push the stuff that you dont want them to be pushing.But, how do you motivate these people to go after the right set of products if youve got a bunch of accountants sitting over here who have knowledge derived from some offline system that nobody else is aware of?† (p. 3). This experience showed that despite the fact that the company had a remedy to solve the problem of implementing the ABC model; it still experienced significant challenges in su staining the strategy for long. The biggest cause for this problem can be attributed to the fact that the organization failed to include the behavioral aspect of implementing this strategy. From this analysis therefore, we can observe that the failure to include the behavioral considerations of implementing the ABC model in the organization can eventually render the whole strategy useless. Comprehensively, the ABC implementation process went on as planned and fell within a nine-month schedule, but this smooth transition could be attributed to including activities within the cost model that bore a strong influence to strategic product pricing and mix decisions (Juras 2003, p. 3). The inclusion of a centralized project team also contributed a lot to the coordination of activities that were done in the implementation process. This team was quite crucial in ensuring a sense of consistency was observed within all plants. It is also identified that the top-bottom approach of implementing the ABC model was deemed appropriate because such a model was basically aimed at making lower-level employees understand the benefits of the ABC model. Moreover, it was identified that the ABC model was essentially hatched at the company’s headquarters and it was the duty of management to push the idea down to lower-level managers and employees (regardless of their personal decisions) (Juras 2003, p. 3). Interestingly, the move by the company’s project team to educate the plant manager was criticized by the company’s manager as ineffective because of the assertion that: â€Å"When we went to the plants to do training, it was like a whirlwind tour; we just showed them some charts and said, now sit down and we are going to ask you some questions.I dont think we put ourselves in our internal customers shoes. We paid very little attention to their constructive concerns or their need to truly understand ABC†. Conclusion This study points out the challenges and successes of implementing ABC by two companies operating in emerging markets. Comprehensively, we see that firms in emerging markets have a significant problem in accepting ABC because it is not a previously implemented model. Having a steering committee and seeking the services of an external agency (with a significant experience in ABC implementation) is a good strategy to making existing managerial teams accept changes. We have also seen that there is a significant challenge experienced by the companies in augmenting ABC with previously existing computer applications, and comprehensively, we see that seeking technical expertise in doing so is a good move towards ensuring there is a smooth transition into ABC, without causing any operational hitches. Also, we see that having clearly set goals is an important tool to steer the implementation of the ABC model in the right direction. This observation is critical, in the sense that, many organizations have been identified to abandon ABC implementation because they do not have a clear understanding of the importance of implementing the ABC model in the first place. In a general sense, we can see that adopting a top-bottom implementation strategy is also important in ensuring the ABC mode is implemented effectively. Burke (2006) affirms this fact and implies that the top-bottom implementation strategy is important because the decision to implement an ABC model is normally undertaken at the company’s headquarters and many organizations expect managers to ensure employee buy-in, to make the transition a success. Conclusively, we can say that organizations operating in emerging markets experience challenges of transitioning from old accounting models to ABC and therefore, tactical strategies need to be adopted to ensure there is a smooth transition from old accounting models into new models. References Armstrong, M. (2006) A Handbook Of Management Techniques: A Comprehensive  Guide To Achieving Managerial E xcellence And Improved Decision Making. London, Kogan Page Publishers. Baker, J. (1998) Activity-Based Costing and Activity-Based Management for Health  Care. London, Jones Bartlett Learning. Burke, L. (2006) CIMA Learning System 2007 Management Accounting Decision  Management. London, Butterworth-Heinemann. Hu, Y.M. (2001) The spontaneous formation and development of ABC, ABM in Chinese Organization. Accounting Research (China), 3, 33–38. Juras, E. (2003) Global Electronics, Inc.: ABC Implementation and the Change  Management Process. (Online) Web. Liu, L.Y.J. and Pan, F. (2007) The implementation of Activity Based Costing in China: An innovation action research approach. The British Accounting Review, 39, 249 264. Panda, N. (1999) Activity Based Costing For Indian Industries. New Delhi, Mittal Publications. Salvendy, G. (2001) Handbook of Industrial Engineering: Technology and Operations  Management. London, Wiley-IEEE.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Realism and Hans Morgenthau in International Relations Essay

Realism and Hans Morgenthau in International Relations - Essay Example The former is most likely the case to occur when changes have occurred in the society structure as to require the reconstruction of the political constitution. Construction of solid political institutions requires the involvement of realism which must draw a clear line between wishful thinking and truth. Political realism2,3 is a study and practise of politics that contends that all nations are guided by their personal interests which are claimed to be their benefit and are disguised as moral concerns. A rational theory which clearly states what are these rational concerns that imprint a nation's need is necessary and requires thinking of the actual needs of a nation rather than what such a nation would like to see achieved. Such objectives of a nation follow a generic model that may apply for thousands of years and the same "moral" concerns that fall under the disguise of personal interest have found applicability since the ancient times. These fall under the territorial security of a nation primarily which once it has been secured the nation might contend the territory expansion for the establishment of a nation's security. Other than territorial expansion purpose of the personal interests a nation might pursue and disguise under morality is the accumulation of power. One however, should not see such claim... Even though international politics call for a clear distinction between personal concern and preservation of one's identity it may not always be the case that such distinction is probable. Morgenthau performs a system level analysis of political realism; he identifies the dependent and independent variables of the system, how these operate within the system and the effects they have on the system functionality. In this case the dependant variable is the foreign policy that states need to follow taking into consideration properties of the problem at hand, alternative solutions and the impact these may have on the involved parties. The independent variables are the drive of the initiative taking party that may be hidden under the disguise of state, or country, rights preservation or moral principles. The question here is what are the rights a country is entitled to as to take any kind of initiative on foreign policy as to proceed to battle and to what extend is one entitled to take any kind of initiative based on these rights or moral conflicts. The danger-action relation is perpetual circular; once danger is identified action is taken and such action breeds changes that keep the danger hint alive. The point here is the criteria to set as to separate rational from irrational behavior; who is to make such distinctions free of bias and finally what behaviour makes moral or amoral perception as to justify any kind of foreign policy initiative with the side-effects that might have. For danger to initiate action and the other way around the one does not necessary call for the other; just a hint is adequate basis for anyone to claim that certain clues call for immediate action. The author claims